Update: Sorry! These are all sold out. Check out the blog often for other deals.
Update: Sorry! These are all sold out. Check out the blog often for other deals.
The next MARNmovies has just been announced!
Meet filmmakers, share shorts, & make new friends at MARNmovies VIII at the Hamilton on Milwaukee’s East Side.
If you have access to a computer or a smart device — and can manage to form a simple declarative sentence, voilá — you’ve suddenly got what it takes to voice your opinion in bold print.
Not so fast, Jeff Craig!
While not an exact science, film criticism requires a certain discipline and understanding to be taken seriously.
Our presenter is film critic Mack Bates. He writes for the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel and Milwaukee Magazine, and has been the recipient of the Crystal Pillar award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, as well as multiple Milwaukee Press Club awards.
We follow his presentation with screenings of local short films and videos. Bring your short film on USB, Blu-ray or DVD and share with the audience!
Friday, July 25, 2014
6 to 9 p.m.
823 E Hamilton St
$5 at the door/Free for students and MARN members
MARNmovies VIII presented by The Electric Sun Corp
with additional support provided by
MKE Production Rental
Milwaukee Independent Film Society
Please join us on the Facebook event page.
Is there a difference between a cinematographer and a camera operator/videographer? Absolutely! The differences go back to the roots of film and video. Even though the lines are blurring between television, film, and commercials, the distinction is more important than ever. A quick history lesson is helpful to understand what the words have come to mean today.
Camera operators* (or in the less politically-correct past, cameramen) historically worked for news organizations. Their objective was objectivity. This drive to convey information, as opposed to emotion, is the key component of videographers/camera operators/news photogs today. They typically use cameras mounted at eye level, seeing the world as we see it with our eyes. They shoot their subject in available light, and capture moments as they happen.
In the early 20th century, their tool of choice was a rugged 16mm film camera. The 1960s saw a migration of newsgathering to video, and that trend continues today. Studio camera operators, once a popular job at local television stations as well as national broadcasters, have become less common as motorized camera systems allow for more automation. Sports camera operators typically shoot from fixed positions with cameras optimized for live event shooting. The goal is to be able to get out of the news van, turn on the camera, and capture the story as easily as possible. Today’s news camera operators use ENG/EFP (Electronic News Gathering/Electronic Field Production) cameras to capture their stories.
Cinematographers (also called directors of photography) historically worked for film studios. Their objective is emotion, and they use all the tools and takes they need to get the desired result. Hiring a cinematographer has become a standard for larger-budget commercials, narrative television, and music videos. Today, many members of the American Society of Cinematographers (ASC) shoot much of their work for television and the internet.
Throughout the entire 20th century, cinematographers typically shot on 35mm or larger film cameras. Technology advances, spurred by advancements in video, meant film’s heyday couldn’t last. The cameras used by television stations weren’t designed to be used as 35mm film camera replacements, so a new type of camera was born: the digital cinema camera. Digital cinema cameras give cinematographers all the tools in a traditional 35mm film camera, plus the advantages of working in digital. While most digital cinema camera packages cost upwards of $50,000, there is a growing market for affordable cinema cameras, with entry-level options just a few thousand dollars.
Today, the lines are blurring between video and digital cinema cameras, and the difference between cinematographers and videographers/camera operators is more nuanced. The key component is no longer the camera or the crew, but rather the objective. If you want a video to capture things “as they are,” whether it’s an event, news story, or presentation, you’re probably looking for a camera operator or videographer. If you’re trying to tell a story with lights, perspective, lens choice, and other cinematic tools, you’re probably looking for a cinematographer.
Posted by Director of Photography Jon Kline*In this case, I don’t mean the term “camera operator” as used on a motion picture set.
This is part three in our “Exposure for Video” series
When shooting video, the third piece of the exposure puzzle is ISO, also called sensitivity, ASA, or gain. All the other ways to adjust exposure are physical changes, they change the number of photons involved in your exposure. In a DSLR or video camera, the ISO adjustment is electronic. Adjusting your ISO will change the quality of your image in a few critical ways.
Much like shutter speed, doubling or halving your ISO is a one-stop change in your exposure. So going from ISO 50 to ISO 100 is one stop brighter, and going from ISO 400 to ISO 100 is two stops darker.
Digital cameras use one or more CMOS or CCD sensors to collect light. Each one is made up of thousands of tiny light-sensitive cells in an array, working together to make the image. These cells are called pixels. They convert the photons of light into electrons, much like a teeny-tiny solar cell.
When recording a video, each of these cells “dumps” its collection of electrons to the computer once each frame. When you’re in a dark situation, there are only a few electrons to dump, and the margin of error goes up. These inaccuracies show up as noise, and (since we perceive light logarithmically – we’ll save this for another blog post) they are most visible in the darker portions of our image. Noise can be distracting and make an image look cheap, especially in moving pictures. Most of the time, we want the least amount of noise possible.
The more gain you use (the higher your ISO), the more noise you will introduce into your image. Using less gain will reduce noise. Noise is blocky and unnatural-looking, and most noticeable in the dark areas. Compare the green areas of the photo below to see varying levels of noise in the 100 and 1600 ISO exposures.
The amount of gain you use will also affect the latitude of the exposure. Latitude is the camera’s ability to record detail in the extreme highlights and shadows of an image. Most digital cameras will gain a half a stop or more of latitude as you increase your ISO. If you reduce your ISO, you’ll reduce your latitude and the image will appear more contrasty. Most of the time, we want to maximize our latitude, since we can always increase contrast in post, but we can’t reduce it. Look at the details in the center of the flower in the image above. You can see the texture in darker areas much more clearly in the 1600 ISO exposure.
So, we want the lowest ISO possible to reduce noise and the highest ISO possible to increase latitude? Not exactly. For digital cameras, the manufacturer determines a particular ISO that gives superior noise performance and acceptable latitude performance. This is called the native ISO, and is dependent on a lot of factors, including pixel size, heat handling, in-camera processing, and aesthetic preferences. Most DSLRs are rated around 100 or 160 native ISO. Other cameras vary, but nearly every camera available in 2014 has a native ISO between 100 and 800.
Most photographers and cinematographers find a few settings on a camera that they like, and stick with them when they are in certain situations. On a camera like the Canon 5D mark III, I usually find myself somewhere between ISO 160 and 640, depending on circumstances. I suggest experimenting and finding what looks you like with your camera. Eventually, you’ll learn what to expect as you adjust your ISO and the rest of your exposure settings.
Posted by Jon Kline
Things don’t always go wrong on the right schedule. If you need help after hours, we suggest sending us a text or voicemail at (414) 939-3653. We will respond as quickly as we can.
For new rentals ordered and picked up outside of our regular business hours, we charge a $59 fee, and our minimum order charge is $99. Insurance requirements still apply for emergency rentals, so we encourage you to keep an insurance certificate on file with us, just in case.
Shooting your video in Milwaukee and you need lighting and grip rental? Whether you need a few apple boxes or a van with all the lighting, power, and grip that fits, we’ve got you covered. We also offer cameras, lenses, tripods, and just about everything you need for a great video shoot. We specialize in small productions (with crews usually under 10 people), and have partnerships with other rental companies to get you pretty much anything your production needs.
Milwaukee has a tight-knit community of non-union production crew, including great gaffers and grips we’d be happy to recommend. Even if you’re not sure what grip and lighting equipment you’ll need, we encourage you to get in touch. Give us a call or send us an email and we’ll show you why Milwaukee is an easy place to get your project done right, on your budget.
We’re the only lighting and grip rental company in Milwaukee who publishes our prices online in our rental catalog. We can also help you with production support equipment, like tables, chairs, food and beverage support, popup tents, and pretty much everything else you might need. Request a quote for your production and we’ll get back to you the same day.
Posted by Director of Photography Jon Kline
I was recently approached by Flipeleven Creative to direct photography on a promotional piece for the Skylight Music Theatre in Milwaukee. The project proposal was creative, ambitious, and unique, and I thought it was a great opportunity to put Sony’s latest 4K camcorder through its paces, even if it may have seemed like an odd camera choice for the project.
The PXW-Z100 features 4096×2160 resolution with 4:2:2 chroma subsampling and 10-bit color, which made me feel pretty confident about using it for green screen and compositing shots. We decided the promo would be a single composited shot, about 60 seconds long. The foreground element would be 24 fps, and the background elements would be 60 fps, conformed to 24. We matched the camera moves by accelerating the camera motion 250% in the 60 fps version. With a limitless budget, I would have leaned toward a Red Epic with remote follow focus and a dana dolly, but we used a homemade PVC dolly and a camera package about a quarter of the cost.
The overall shooting experience went well. The wifi control feature was very helpful, making it possible to start and stop recording and pull focus remotely. The web interface for controlling the focus was usually very effective, but sometimes a bit twitchy. I ended up blowing about 20% of the takes due to the focus racking in the opposite direction I told it to. Since we were shooting indoors, we shot at f/2, making focus more critical than most applications. For version 1.0 of a HTML interface, the wifi feature is pretty impressive, but I’d love to see improvements as Sony updates the firmware. The ability to control focus with a keyboard instead of sliders would be a nice touch.
We were shooting indoors under theatrical lighting, around 3000K. Given the opportunity, I would have liked to have been closer to 5600K, since the camera seems to handle noise better at higher color temperatures. We ended up keeping gain at 0 dB, but there was still visible noise in the 4K source footage, since a large portion of the frame was dark at any point in time. An extra stop of sensitivity would have been appreciated, but the Z100 was adequate. We shot flat, since we knew we’d be doing a very heavy grade in post.
After the shoot was over, it was time to try keying and compositing. The first thing I realized was I should have turned sharpness completely down for VFX! I had only done some very brief greenscreen tests with the camera before our shoot day. Reviewing the footage, there was a two- to three-pixel band of black between our subject and the chroma green. Fortunately, the matte choker handled it pretty well,but it would have been much better to add sharpness in post, since the Z100 seems to be pretty heavy-handed with the default sharpness setting.
The other “shoulda” on my list from this shoot was a smoother dolly ride. We had to make a lot of tweaks to take out the wiggles as we hit the tiny junctions between PVC pipes, and the slight bend of the tracks made things a little more complicated. A heavier camera would have meant a heavier dolly, making things smoother, but it might not have been possible to get 30 feet of steel pipe and a full-size dolly properly supported over the vintage seating, either. Fortunately, the bumps didn’t seem to cause any rolling shutter artifacts, which was a pleasant surprise.
The keying experience was definitely much nicer than any non-raw camera I’ve used. I think the results speak for themselves, so I’ll let you be the judge of the effect. We had some serious green bounce from under the subject, but the camera’s codec definitely kept all the color information it got. Some cameras (e.g. DSLRs) have a fantastic sensor but limited processing power, encoding, and bandwidth. Other cameras, like the Z100, have incredible recording ability, but are most limited by their sensor. In this way, the Z100 reminds me of Panasonic’s HVX200. I’m sure once Sony releases the lower bitrate options in a firmware update, most shooters will be happy trading high bitrates for longer record times.
Our deliverable was 2K resolution, but we did some substantial zooming and cropping in post. The project turnaround was so fast, we didn’t have time for noise reduction, and subtle noise was added over all the elements as one of the final compositing steps. Basically, I suggest you watch it as a complete piece, and don’t use this as a pixel-peeping comparison.
Special thanks to the incredible team at Skylight Theatre who teamed up with all my friends at Flipeleven to make this awesome promo!
Posted by Jon Kline
Filmmakers and Saturday Night Live fans alike will be in Milwaukee on March 25th, for a chance to meet the Director of Photography for Saturday Night Live, Alex Buono. Buono has also worked on multiple feature films and shorts, and has decades of experience in production. The event will start with a product expo including Canon cameras from 5 to 7pm, and Buono will present from 7 to 8:30.
An Evening with Saturday Night Live’s Director of Photography Alex Buono
Tuesday, March 25, 2014
Product Expo 5pm
The Pilot House at Discovery World
500 N. Harbor Drive
Milwaukee, WI 53202
map registerPosted by Director of Photography Jon Kline
We recently added the Sony PXW-Z100 to our rental catalog, and one of the first things we wanted to test when we got it out of the box was real-world performance with N-series and S-series XQD cards. Since S-series cards are, at the moment, much more expensive than N-series cards, we wanted to know what that extra cost was buying, in performance terms. A scarcity of supply has driven the price of S-series cards up even further over the last six months. We also wanted to clear up some of the confusion around XQD card speed ratings in general. At one point, Sony offered H-series cards (with speeds similar to N-series), but those have been discontinued, so we did not test them here. The S-series cards come in several varieties, rated by their read speeds (which don’t necessarily correlate with write speeds). The S-series card we tested was the faster 180 MB/s variety, but Sony claims the 168MB/s S-series card is fully compatible with all Z100 video modes as well.
For our test, we used two N-series 64GB Sony XQD cards and one S-series 32GB Sony XQD card. We recorded with a Sony PXW-Z100 with firmware version 1.01. Each card was formatted in-camera before each test. As of this firmware version, the camera only supports recording in one codec, XAVC, the same format used in higher-end cameras like the Sony F55.
For the first test series (Test A) we recorded clips in mixed lighting, on a tripod with manual exposure and gain set to 0dB. For the second test series (Test B), we recorded clips in a very dark room, handheld, zoomed in to max, walking around, with gain at 18dB. We felt this was probably the most likely to max out the PXW-Z100’s bitrate, and represented a worst-case scenario for the cards. A test was marked as a pass (✔) if the camera recorded successfully for 6 minutes, and a fail (✖) if recording was automatically stopped. We tested each more than once, and used two different N-series cards, but we got identical results with each repeat test.
For all settings of the camera, the N-series card returned a message “Not Guaranteed Media,” and for all settings with the S-series card, there was no message. All of our failed tests stopped recording within the first 30 seconds of the clip.
N-Series Card S-Series Card Guaranteed Test A Test B Guaranteed Test A Test B 1920×1080 all framerates ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ 3840×2160 23.98p ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ 3840×2160 29.97p ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ 3840×2160 59.94p ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ 4096×2160 23.98p ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ 4096×2160 29.97p ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ 4096×2160 59.94p ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔
A quick peek at the file sizes indicated that the same 600Mb/s bitrate was reached for the 4096×2160 60p and 3840×2160 60p settings under all test conditions. To put it another way: the bitrate is based only on the video size and framerate, not what is being recorded.
The upshot is, if you’re recording in HD, or in 23.97p framerates, paying extra for the S-series cards will only buy you peace of mind. If you’re looking to stay budget-conscious, or want to wait out investing in extra media until the price drops, N-series cards may be the way to go. But N-series cards simply can’t handle 4K at framerates greater than 24p, yet. To keep things interesting, Sony is expected to support writing lower-bitrate formats AVCHD and XAVC LongGOP with a scheduled firmware update. The firmware update is also expected to enable the single SD/MemoryStick card slot, which is completely unused in the current version. For shooters comfortable with AVCHD files, XQD cards may become completely unnecessary after the update.
Posted by Jon Kline
If you’re a student studying film, chances are you have a lot on your plate. Classes, productions, exams, and maybe a job and a social life, too. But there are some key things you can do to give yourself a head start in the field, whether you’re interested in production. post-production, broadcast, or other media. Complete this list to get a head start on a successful career.
Get an Internship
You are going to need something on your resume besides McDonald’s and a BA in film. Find an internship in a field you think might be interesting. Make sure you’ll have a direct supervisor who can help you learn something, not just have you do menial work all day. Expect to spend 80-160 hours of college in an internship. If you can’t find a paid internship, it’s okay to take an unpaid one. I suggest limiting your work time to 120 unpaid hours, though. After that, you’ve made your connections, left your impressions, and hopefully learned a few lessons. Now you can put the internship on your resume and find an entry-level job.
Need some ideas on an internship? A lot of smaller businesses don’t post anything formally, but if you leave your resume on their desk enough times, you might get a call back anyway. If you’re in Milwaukee, we sometimes hire interns, too!
Create Something Impractical
You will have your whole career to make other people’s projects. When you’re doing work for clients or a specific television program or film, you probably won’t get a lot of creative input. You’ll be subject to brand guidelines, messaging guidelines, tone, and budget in ways you can’t even imagine. College might be your last chance to do something “crazy.” You can work on projects without deadlines, spend hours on them without counting and budgeting, and finish when you decide it’s done. And when you’re done, having something really unique to show as part of the interview process is a great way to be remembered.
Submit Things for Awards
If you’re doing it right, you’re creating things for class and campus groups non-stop in college. Be sure to let your best work collect some awards. Film festivals, advertising and media groups festivals, and student groups all have awards. Winning is usually about a combination of talent, luck, and submitting to lots of opportunities. Taking home a few awards will boost your confidence and add a line item to your resume, both of which are important when you’re trying to get in the door at your first “real” job.
Start a LinkedIn Profile
This advice applies to almost every college student. You need to create your own personal brand, and waiting until after graduation is too late. Almost every internship or job opportunity that considers you will probably look up your profile, see what you’ve done, and how you may be connected to their existing employees. Create your profile, add some work experience, and start to find your voice. Be sure to build your network, especially with faculty and students a year or two ahead of you. You’ll be looking to work and get internships in the same places your friends are. This can also be a great way to keep in touch and ask for career advice from people who have been where you are.
Join Some Organizations
Be sure to get involved with at least one organization on campus and one professional organization. These are great ways to build your network and give you some introductions into the world of film and video production. Personal connections are important in any industry, but for you, they will be extra important. You could be moving from project to project as a contractor every few months, so the more people you already know, the easier it will be to find your next project. Lots of professional organizations have reduced rates for students, too! Not sure where to start? If you’re in Wisconsin, I suggest Milwaukee Adworkers, Madison Media Professionals, and Milwaukee Film, Different cities have different groups, but try to find one in an area you’re interested in, with regular events and a lot of members you’d like to get to know.
Work as a Production Assistant
There are two ways to make a living in the world of moving pictures: jobs and gigs. Chances are, you’re pretty familiar with how a job works. Gigs are different. Usually lasting between a day and six weeks, gigs are project-based work and you’ll usually be paid a day rate, as opposed to hourly. Production Assistants (called PAs) are almost always paid a day rate and usually get to be on set. You’ll probably need to provide an invoice and get some experience in invoicing and taxes. People who work as contractors on different gigs are called freelancers. Even if you’re not planning on spending your career as a freelancer, you’ll still benefit from seeing how that world works.
Make Some Cold Calls
Even the most accomplished people in the worlds of cinema and television are just people like you and me. Find an excuse to get in touch with your idol. Maybe you’re writing a paper for a class and would like a quote, or you’re interested in touring their facility or finding out about their process. These days, it’s pretty easy to send an email, and if you appeal to their ego, you’ll probably get a response. Just be professional, concise, and end with a specific action you’d like them to take. You might be surprised who emails you back.
Now go create some projects, make some connections, and win some awards!
Posted by Jon Kline
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